Inca kauplemise susteem,

Antropoloogilise arheoloogia ajakiri Anyone living in this region can claim rights to one of the salt ponds. Sacred Valley, the name that Incas gave this place, recognizing its magnificence and importance. Pöörates mäest üles San Blasi kvartali poole, jäävad kirikud ning üksluised majaseinad selja-taha ning äkitselt avastad ennast massiivsetest kividest müüri kõrval. A stone idol stood in front of it, oozing powerful energy. This awe-inspiring place became one of the most important religious locations in Incan empire and now it acts as invaluable research site for Incan culture and history.

Although, most of the information is in Spanish and the presentation a bit out of date. Even if visiting museums is not high on your priority it is still recommended to step into the courtyards. Stepping through the gate and leaving behind the moderate appearance a secret space will open.

These courtyards are where colonial architecture shines its brightest: light filled square with a quiet fountain or a beautiful sculpture, surrounded by an airy archway and upwards climbing vegetation.

  • Suurendada kiireid kauplemisvoimalusi
  • keepexploring – JEKA JALUTAB
  • Inkade tee inkade keeles ketšua keeles Capaq Ñan või Qhapaq Ñan ja hispaania keeles Gran Ruta Inca oli oluline osa inkade impeeriumi edust.
  • Inka teesüsteem - 25 miili teed ühendamas inkade impeeriumi | Teadus | May

A place where stones gather the heat of the day and then release it back to the visitors in the late evening cool. Cusco is a great place to introduce yourself to South American and high Andean culinary.

Inka teesüsteem - 25 000 miili teed ühendamas inkade impeeriumi

Chirimoyas, grenadillas, enormous avocados, fresh sweet pineapples, several thousand sorts of potatoes and some hundred types of corn are just a few highlights of the popularity gaining Peruvian cuisine. Chicha, Incans favourite drink is lightly fermented corn beer. Some places they still make it in an old-fashioned way — chewing on corn and the spitting it into water.

This makes the corn ferment and after a few days it will reach the desired alcoholic level. Sometimes strawberries are mixed in as well, to add some sweetness.

Chichamorada is a non-alcoholic drink which is made of purple corn and is also one of the more popular drinks in Peru. During the weekends evening Cusco is full of food stalls that offer local delicacies like barbacoa, seafood, vegetables, soups and sweets — from churros to hand-made ice-cream.

Cusco draws over 3 million tourists a year, so you can also find a lot of international restaurants — from Italian pizza and pasta to Japanese sushi and ramen places.

One of the more mesmerizing parts of Cusco is the old San Blas district. Considered to be an artisan and bohemian neighbourhood, it is difficult to walk along its narrow-cobbled streets and not pass by several artisans selling their craft or jump in a studio to witness how alpaca wool poncho is being made. It is also a good idea to turn around on these steep streets and look down upon the city that spreads like an orange carpet all over the valley floor and up the rolling hills.

The highlight of the Inca kauplemise susteem is San Blas market. Visiting during lunch hours you will be struck by a loud, busy, chaotic energy that is accompanied by overwhelming scent of various meals and ingredients. This place is always full and for a reason. This market is known all over Cusco and Peru. As you visit this place more often certain favourites will emerge. Loyalty will be rewarded with bigger portions, friendlier prices, and useful insights into local attractions to visit.

In the beginning of December various Christmas decorations appear across the town — statues of saints, nativity scenes, and of course street food stalls which offer traditional Peruvian Christmas treats like hot spicy drinks, tamales, panettones, and turkey. On Christmas eve Plaza de las Armas transforms into a massive market called Santurantikuy.

There you can buy art, jeweler, clothes, souvenirs, food, and may more things.

Inca teedevõrk - 25 000 miili teekonda, mis ühendab Inka impeeriumi

However, as the name suggests this market is most known for one specific item — small saint figurines and dolls. Different kinds of stalls that span over half of the plaza sell different size dolls of different saints.

If you already have a doll, then you can also purchase a new pair of colourful or golden garments for them as well. The square was full for three days in a row and people flock to the market form all over Cusco and surrounding areas.

During night-time people sleep under archways on the edges of the square. This is a hard sight to see. People come Inca kauplemise susteem town with most of their material possessions, carrying it themselves, mules or put together some money to rent Mida pakub aktsiavalikuid bus or use a public transport. They do not go back until everything has been sold or the market ends. Thousands of people walk or run seven times around the square and on the last minute of the year eat twelve grapes.

All of this for good luck for the following year. Midst all these people children run around and throw small fireworks into the crowd and sometimes a badly reinforced rocket flies into the wrong direction. All of it creates a chaotic but incredibly energetic atmosphere which last all night long.

This lesser known story starts with Wiracocha sending out his four sons and four daughters from Pacaritambo mountain to find a suitable place for a new capital. Brothers and sisters who were also married to each other received a golden staff that was supposed to sink in the ground at a right place.

As a symbol of wealth there is also a tradition to wear yellow during the last day of the year. Sacred Valley, the name that Incas gave this place, recognizing its magnificence and importance.

On one side of Inca kauplemise susteem valley there sits Cusco and a small historical village Pisac. Fertile Inca kauplemise susteem, good climate, and the proximity to the capital gave Urubamba valley an important purpose in the empire. It maintains it even today. Standing on an elevated position with a view along the sun-soaked valley feeling the soft wind that gently moves corn cobs on the bottom you can see that most of the mountain walls are covered by the highlight of Incan engineering — agricultural terraces.

One of the more unique places in the Sacred Valley are Moray terraces that on the first glance reminded me a huge amphitheater. However, these were Incan experimental agricultural laboratories. Approximately 30 meters deep, Valikud kauplemine Yahoo construction creates a distinctive micro climate on each terrace. The difference between the uppermost and the lowest terrace can be as great as fifteen degrees.

This was the place to test various plants from different environments. The soil on each terrace was brought to Moray from diverse locations from all over the empire. It feels like Sacred Valley has been entangled in several hundred years in the past.

This is apparent in local life and culture. People speak Quechua, grow corn and quinoa, sow vibrant textiles, and brew chicha.

A serene peace floats over the valley that can only be experienced in some unique spiritual locations in the world. An hour from Cusco following long and serpentine road there lies a town of Pisac. A sleepy settlement that has transformed into a Mecca of alternative medicine and spiritual journeys in South-America. However, there is plenty to do around Pisac if discovering your inner self and connecting to Pachamama is not on your priority list. Honestly, the most crowded day in Pisac is Sunday.

Then surrounding farmers and artisans come to town market, which is the main handicraft market in the area. The every-day small peaceful market transforms into a crowded, colourful, and multilingual site. Behind long stalls stand brightly dressed Quechua women and invite you to try on a pretty scarf or a gaudy poncho, check out some jewellery or small souvenirs.

After visiting several stalls, I came to realisation, most of the sellers offer the same things. Therefore, you should keep an eye out for the prices and not be afraid to haggle. The neighbour might offer the same things for lower or even half the price.

Newest ideas

Ruins of Pisac On the other side of the Sacred Valley there is one of the oldest consistently inhabited villages in South America and one of the best-preserved Incan ruins in Peru. This small town is in fact a busy transport hub. The train and busses to Aguas Calientes and further to Machu Picchu depart from here. Ollantaytambo was built by Pachacuti, the same emperor whose statue crowns the fountain in Plaza de las Armas in Cusco. Ollantaytambo, like Cusco, was already habited by a small group of people before Incas reached this place.

This was a tribe of water worshipers and they left behind an interesting and complex watering system and beautiful altars that have survived until today. The distinctiveness of Ollantaytambo is noticeable from war away. These monumental ruins differ from any other historical sites in Sacred Valley.

Neli teed Cuzcost

Firstly, the farming terraces are much higher and wider than anywhere else. Secondly, the ruins sit on top of a smaller mountain that is visible from far away. Strategical location and unique architecture have lead the historians to believe that Ollantaytambo had a military purpose. As it happens, this is also the location of the only known instance where Incan army beat Spanish conquistadores. Incas had a perfect Inca kauplemise susteem of the whole valley and the wide terraces functioned as defensive structures, making an already difficult uphill battle nearly impossible.

The strategic decision to flood the valley also turned Spanish cavalry into a useless burden. However, Ollantaytambo was abandoned not long after the battle. There is a substantial amount of unfinished building materials lying around the ruins. Ghostly monolithic stones standing and lying as waiting for the workers to set them up, small stones half carved, smoothed and half rough and raw, lone walls marking where a house or a temple should be.

If Incas had the chance to complete the work, Ollantaytambo would challenge Machu Picchu for the most magnificent temples in the empire. Six massive blocs that make up one wall of supposed Sun temple are a great evidence for this. Each stone weighs more than fifty tons.

Posts navigation

Most of building material for Ollantaytambo was brought here from a quarry seven kilometres away and Incas did not have horses or any other animals, who would have helped carrying these.

The symbols carved on the stone created interesting shadows on the wall which were then interpreted by shamans on the certain days of the year to make predictions for the future weather, crops, and much more.

Maras salt mines are located near the village of Moray some fifty kilometres north east from Cusco. This, centuries old town is like a weird paradox for such a touristy place in Peru. There are no visitors here, no souvenir shops, no restaurants and no hotels. Group carrying busses do not stop here but drive fast through the town.

We accidentally stayed here for a night when hiking from Maras to Moray. Looking back now, this is also why Moray village etched itself so clearly in my memory. It was a Inca kauplemise susteem devoid of catering towards tourism, people did not mind them there, but they did not really let themselves be bothered by foreigners as well.

  • Avatud huvi FX voimalused
  • Inka teedevõrk - 25 miili. Impeeriumi ühendamine
  • Inca teedevõrk - 25 miili teekonda, mis ühendab Inka impeeriumi by K.
  • Euroopa Liidu C /

It was a small window into Andean lifestyle that I had been looking for. Our evening there was the most memorable. A group of people gathered on the small square to watch local dancers, eat traditional food, and drink chicha that was still made in the Incan way.

People enjoyed spending time with each other. For me the most vivid place still are the salt ponds of Maras. This natural wander is created by a small stream of extremely salty water. Locals directed the stream in such a way that water is collected in small ponds Inca kauplemise susteem a complex watering system. Shallow ponds slowly fill up and daily heat with sunlight vaporize the water leaving a lot of salt on the walls and the bottom of the ponds.

Then locals gather it and use it in various ways. Collecting salt in such a way for centuries has transformed Maras into a fantastic landscape. Salt crystals covered pond walls mirror back the sunlight while breaking it into a kaleidoscopic light show. Various size ponds where salt white and clay brown mix cover the valley like a patchwork blanket. Local workers balance themselves on narrow roads and planks without paying attention to tourists.

Anyone living in this region can claim rights to one of the salt ponds. The best and oldest ones are inherited, and newcomers are given locations in the bottom of the valley. The longer you are living in the community the better are your chances of getting a better pond. If nobody takes care of their site or people are not interested in their inheritance, the pond is given to a new family.

I could not hold myself back and I had a sip of the water. Immediately I felt a burning sensation in my mouth, my eyes started watering, and I started coughing violently. For safe consummation one can buy a small bag of Maras salt in the souvenir stalls set up around the entrance.

On my last day in Cusco I gave some gifts to San Blas market ladies who looked after me during this month with their delicious juices and feast like sandwiches.

My next destination was Bolivia and when I looked back to my time in Peru, Cusco and Sacred Valley were truly the places where one can experience everything that this incredible country has to offer. Inkadel on oma rahva kohta põnev loomismüüt. Vähetuntud jutt pajatab kuidas loojajumal Wiracocha saatis oma neli poega ja neli tütart Pacaritambo mäest meie maailma, et leida sobilik paik pealinna ehitamiseks.

Mõned teed olid sillutatud kivist munakividega, kuid paljud teised olid looduslikud mustuseradade laiused meetrit 3, jalga.

Teed ehitati peamiselt mööda sirgeid jooni, kusjuures ainult haruldane läbipaine oli kuni 20 kraadi 5-kilomeetrise 3 mi pikkusega.

Kõrgkalendritel ehitati teed, et vältida suuri kõveraid. Mägipiirkondade läbimiseks on Inka ehitanud pikkade treppide ja ümberlülituste; madalikute teede kaudu rabad ja märgalad nad ehitatud teed ; ületades jõed ja ojad vaja sildu ja truubreid ning kõrbes venitada ka oaseside ja kaevude valmistamine madalate seinte või koobastega.

Praktilised probleemid Teed ehitati peamiselt praktilisemaks ja need olid mõeldud inimeste, kaupade ja armeede liikumiseks kiiresti ja ohutult kogu impeeriumi pikkuses ja laiuses. Inkud hoidsid peaaegu alati teed alla meetri kõrgusel ja seal, kus üldse võimalikult, järgnesid lamedate mägede orud ja lainelauad. Teed kaeti suurel hulgal ebasoodsas Lõuna-Ameerika kõrbes rannikul, jooksis selle asemel sisemaale piki Andide jalamil, kus leiti veeallikaid.

Võimaluse korral välditi mustaid alasid. Arhitektuurilisi uuendusi mööda rada, kus raskusi ei õnnestunud vältida, olid rätikute ja truubide drenaažisüsteemid, sulgemiskäigud, Binaarne valik ilma hoiuste boonusteta laiendid ja paljudes kohtades väikesed seinad, mis ehitati teele kinni ja kaitsevad seda erosiooni eest. Mõnes kohas on ohutu navigeerimise eesmärgil ehitatud tunnelid ja kinnitusdetailid.

Atacama kõrb Sellegipoolest ei saanud vältida Precolumbia reisimist kogu Tšiili Atacama kõrbes. Ta kirjeldab oma inimeste hävitamist väikestesse rühmadesse, et jagada ja veeta toitu ja veevarusid. Ta saatis ka ratsanikud, et tuvastada järgmise vaba veeallika asukoht. Tšiili arheoloog Luis Briones on väitnud, et kuulsad Atacama geoglüüfid, mis on nikerdatud kõrbes kõnniteele ja Andide jalamil, olid markerid, mis näitasid, kust leiti vee allikaid, soolakortereid ja loomasööta.

Inkade maanteel asuv majutus Vastavalt sellele asusid maanteed iga km pikkuse kohaga tambos või tampus, väikesed hoonekomplektid või külad, mis käitusid puhata. Nii andis nii jaam majutuskohtadele, toidule ja varustustele reisijatele, samuti võimalused kohalike ettevõtetega kauplemiseks. Paljude erinevate suurustega tampu toetamiseks hoiti mitu väikest rajatist. Tervete puhtuse ja hoolduse eest vastutavad kuninglikud ametnikud tocricoc; kuid pidev kohalolek, mida ei saa välja tõrjuda, olid pomaranra, teede vargad või bandiidid.

Posti kandmine Postitussüsteem oli Inca teedu oluline osa, kusjuures rööbastelid, mida nimetatakse chasqui, Inca kauplemise susteem mööda teed 1,4 km 0,8 mi intervallides.

Infot võeti mööda Inca kauplemise susteem kas suuliselt või salvestatud inkuba kirjakandesüsteemidesse sõlmede nööridest nimega quipu. Kõik põhimaanteed kiirgasid Cuzcost välja, igaüks neist nimetati ja osutus kardinaalsetes suundades Cuzcost eemale. Chinchaysuyu, suundus põhja poole ja lõppes Quito, Ecuadoris Cuntisuyu, läänes ja Vaikse ookeani rannikul Collasuyu juhtis lõunasse, lõppedes Inca kauplemise susteem ja Põhja-Argentinas Antisuyu, ida suunas kuni Amazonase džungli lääneservani Ajalooliste andmete kohaselt oli Chinchaysuyu tee Cuzcost Quitos neist neljast kõige olulisem, hoides impeeriumi valitsejaid tihedas ühenduses oma maade ja alamate inimestega põhjas.

Inkade teedeehitus Kuna ratastele mõeldud sõidukid polnud inkadele tundmatud, olid inkade tee pinnad mõeldud jalgsi liiklemiseks, kaasas loomadena laamad või alpakad. Mõned sõiduteed olid sillutatud kivikividega, kuid paljud teised olid looduslikud mustuserajad, mille laius oli 1—4 meetrit. Teed ehitati peamiselt piki sirgeid, vaid 5 km pikkusel lõigul oli haruldane läbipaine kuni 20 kraadi. Mägismaal ehitati teid suuremate kurvide vältimiseks. Mägipiirkondade läbimiseks ehitasid inkad pikad trepid ja tagasilöögid; soode ja märgalade kaudu kulgevate madalsooteede jaoks rajasid nad teerajad; jõgede ja ojade ületamiseks oli vaja sildu ja truupe ning kõrbepiirkondade alla kuulusid oaaside ja kaevude tegemine madalate müüride või koppade äärde.

Praktilised mured Teed ehitati peamiselt otstarbekuse huvides ning need olid mõeldud inimeste, kaupade ja armeede kiireks ja ohutuks liikumiseks kogu impeeriumi ulatuses.

But who am I?

Inkad hoidsid peaaegu alati teed alla 16 jala meetri kõrgusel ja kus vähegi võimalik mööda lamedaid mägedevahelisi orge ja üle platoode. Teed ääristasid suure osa Lõuna-Ameerika ebasobivast kõrberannikust, kulgedes hoopis sisemaale mööda Andide jalamit, kust leidus veeallikaid.

Soostunud alasid välditi võimaluse korral. Arhitektuuriuuendused raja ääres, kus ei olnud võimalik vältida raskusi, hõlmasid vihmaveerennide ja truupide kuivendussüsteeme, tagasilööke, sildade ulatust ja paljudes kohtades madalat seina, mis ehitati tee kinnitamiseks ja erosiooni eest kaitsmiseks.

Mõnes kohas ehitati ohutu liiklemise võimaldamiseks tunnelid ja tugimüürid. Atacama kõrb Eelolumbiapäraseid reise üle Tšiili Atacama kõrbe ei õnnestunud siiski vältida. Ta kirjeldab, et peab oma inimesed jagama väikestesse rühmadesse toidu- ja veevarude jagamiseks ning kandmiseks. Samuti saatis ta ette ratsanikke, et tuvastada järgmise saadaoleva veeallika asukoht.