The dispenser cathode initially used was the type M made by SpectraMat. These Science. The results were benchmarked against ash from Soufrière Hills volcano, Montserrat, which has been extensively studied since the onset of eruptive activity in We reexamined. The land area between the glacier and the coast was occupied by farming community. Henestroza, E.
Henestroza, E. These changes resulted in a significant increase in the beam current, achieving the 2 kA milestone. Until recently beforethe maximum beam current that was produced from the 6.
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At this temperature level, the heat loss was dominated by radiation which is proportional to temperature to the fourth power. The maximum operating temperature was limited by the damage threshold of the potted filament and the capacity of the filament heater power supply, as well as the shortening of the cathode life time. There were also signs of overheating at other components in the cathode assembly.
Thus it was clear that our approach to increase beam current could not be simply trying to run at a higher temperature and the preferred way was to operate with a cathode that has a lower work function.
The dispenser cathode initially used was the type M made by SpectraMat.
The result was similar even after we had revised the activation and handling procedures to adhere more closely to the recommend steps taking longer time and nonstop to do the out-gassing. Vacuum was a major concern in considering the cathode's performance.
Although the vacuum gauges at the injector vessel indicated 10 -8 Torr, the actual vacuum condition near the cathode in the central region of the vessel, where there might be significant out-gassing from the heater region, was never determined.
Poor vacuum at the surface of the cathode degraded the emission by raising the work function value. We reexamined.